28 May 2011

The Militarization and Securitization of the Canadian University

Here are some links to pages worthy of note, on the securitization and militarization of the Canadian university, and how priorities for research are being reoriented to surveillance at home and intervention abroad, realigning academic research with the imperatives of the national security state and not with the broader public that funds our universities. As AJP comes across more resources, we will consolidate these for readers and interested colleagues, with a specific focus on Canadian universities. In the meantime, please visit our Documents and Library pages for more resources that are relevant.

"The hottest postsecondary field? Intelligence: Demand is so high, universities simply cannot keep up," by Jeff Sallot, The Globe and Mail, 01 January 2007:
"...Once considered an arcane branch of Cold War-era political science, security and intelligence studies now attracts interest from historians, sociologists -- even engineers trying to design structures that might become terrorist targets. At least 10 Canadian universities offer courses dealing with security and intelligence issues....The U.S. government's response to the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks resulted in the allocation of billions of dollars for intelligence and security agencies. The spillover is felt at American colleges and universities that have been able to start new courses and programs. The Department of Homeland Security finances faculty positions at 'centres of excellence' at six universities and 23 partner universities....Ottawa has also allocated considerable sums for security in recent years, but academics in Canada say they aren't seeing the same kind of benefit as their American colleagues...."
"Canada Boost Intelligence," Canadian Press, 04 February 2007:
"As universities struggle to meet the growing post-9-11 demand for courses in security and intelligence, Canada's spy agency has revved up recruiting efforts to fill positions soon to be vacated by retiring baby boomers."
"It’s All About the People: Cultural Intelligence (CQ) as a Force Multiplier in the Contemporary Operating Environment," by Emily Spencer (University of Northern British Columbia), in Journal of Conflict Studies,Vol. 29, 2009:

Counterinsurgency within "the national domain":
"16 Within the domestic realm there are a number of audiences that are critical for the Canadian Forces to fully understand — each with its specific beliefs, values, and attitudes and, consequently, behaviors. The first target domestic audience is the general Canadian public itself. Understanding Canadian beliefs, values, and attitudes is critically important for a number of reasons. First, public confidence and support is crucial for the continuing vitality of the CF. The 'decade of darkness' of the 1990s, when a series of scandals eroded governmental and public confidence and support in the CF, demonstrated the danger of losing touch with Canadian societal sensitivities and beliefs in such basic concepts as accountability, integrity, and transparency. This erosion in CF support impacted the Department of National Defence (DND) and the CF in a myriad of ways from budgetary support to recruiting and the ability to investigate and regulate itself as an autonomous profession. In essence, public support engenders political support, which can lead directly to credibility and trust, which in turn leads to freedom of action. Indeed, continuing Canadian participation in Afghanistan is directly tied to public sentiment and support.

"17 A 'cultural' comprehension of the general Canadian public also has an impact on recruiting. An understanding of what is important to Canadians, and what triggers their commitment and support, is key to developing the necessary approaches to attract young Canadians to join the CF. If the public understand the CF and its members, if there is a deep-rooted connection between them and the CF, particularly its mission and importance to national security, temporary crises or scandals will be less traumatic and have a shorter lasting effect.

"18 Finally, a cultural understanding of the general Canadian public is an important source of information. As the threat to Western societies grows through both the interconnected globalized world and through radicalization of home-grown terrorists through the internet or simply from domestic disenfranchised elements, the CF will increasingly be called on to assist law enforcement agencies (LEA) in a domestic context. As such, understanding what is important to Canadians from a cultural, ideological, and/ or attitudinal perspective will be critical for ensuring active support of the CF and equally to prevent alienation, passivity, or even active resistance while assisting LEAs in Canada."
The same article also evaluates the utility of the U.S. Army's Human Terrain System (HTS) for its possible lessons for Canadian cultural counterinsurgency. For more along those lines, see the next item:

CANADIAN FORCES COLLEGE / COLL√ąGE DES FORCES CANADIENNES - JCSP 34 / PCEMI 34 - MASTER OF DEFENCE STUDIES PAPER - From the Physical to the Cognitive: The Changing Nature of the Army in Post-Modern Operations. By /par Maj C.W. Kean, 25 April 2008:
"The Human Terrain System (HTS) is an innovative method of gaining an appreciation for and understanding of the cultural aspects that shape different perspectives within a given society. When properly implemented, the Human Terrain System (HTS) helps clarify previous assumptions or gaps in understanding that had plagued the Army in previous years. This tool allows the commander and his or her staff the ability to visualize the complexity of the social systems within their area of operations so that they are more capable of understanding root causes of conflict and conceptualizing possible second and third-order consequences of their actions. It further allows the commander and his staff the ability to better understand the situation from the perspective of the population and potential adversaries." (page 55)

The Gregg Centre for the Study of War and Society, at the University of New Brunswick:
Our strengths: Internationally recognized faculty specializing in peacekeeping, modern stability building, terrorism, intelligence and military and naval history...
The Journal of Conflict Studies, from the Gregg Centre (above):
Topics Include:
  • revolutionary or civil war
  • guerrilla warfare
  • terrorism
  • counter-insurgency and counter-terror operations
  • propaganda and psychological warfare
  • intelligence activities
  • media coverage of such conflict
  • peacekeeping
  • foreign/military policy
  • strategic studies as they relate to the field
Canadian Intelligence Resource Centre: Academic Community and Research Groups

Canadian Association for Security and Intelligence Studies--see links to ACADEMIC PROGRAMS

"Keeping tabs on the world of terrorism," by Donna Jacobs, The Ottawa Citizen, 11 September 2006--a profile of Carleton University's Professor Martin Rudner.

2010 CASIS International Conference--The Canadian Association for Security and Intelligence Studies (CASIS) held their annual conference in Ottawa from October 14th to 15th. The theme of this year's conference was "Understanding National Security". This session on October 14th was on "The Toronto 18 and Radicalization in Canada" and featured presentations by Mubin Shaikh (a former undercover agent in the Toronto 18 investigation), Michael King (Department of Psychology at McGill University) and Stewart Bell (senior reporter for the National Post).

2009 CASIS International Conference--From October 29th to 31st, 2009, the 2009 CASIS International Conference was held in Ottawa. The theme of this year's conference was "Terrorism, Cyberspies and a New ‘Cold’ War: Emerging Challenges for Security and Intelligence." In the fourth panel discussion on October 30th, 2009, government analysts, scholars and independent researchers participated in a roundtable on radicalization and extremism.
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